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مُساهمةموضوع: انجليزية...............   31/07/12, 11:41 am

الرشوةBribery, a form of pecuniary corruption, is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person or in breach of law. Bribery constitutes a crime and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in discharge of a public or legal duty. The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be any money, good, right in action, property, preferment, privilege, emolument, object of value, advantage, or merely a promise or undertaking to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity.


الغش والتزويرA counterfeiting is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins. The word counterfeit most frequently describes forged currency or documents, but can also describe clothing, software, pharmaceuticals, watches, or more recently, cars and motorcycles, especially when this results in patent infringement or trademark infringement.

By contrast, a knockoff item may imitate a well-known one, be sold for a lower price, and be of inferior quality, but there is usually no attempt to deceive the buyer, or infringe upon brand names, patents, trademarks or copyrights.


الامن الغذائيFood security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. World-wide around 852 million men, women and children are chronically hungry due to extreme poverty, while up to 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty (source: FAO, 2003). As of late 2007, increased farming for use in biofuels,[1] world oil prices at nearly $100 a barrel,[2] global population growth,[3] climate change,[4] loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development,[5][6] and growing consumer demand in China and India[7] have pushed up the price of grain.[8][9] Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world.[10][11][12]




الهجرة السريةIllegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Under this definition, an illegal immigrant is a foreigner who either has illegally crossed an international political border, be it by land, water, or air, or a foreigner who has entered a country legally but then overstays his/her visa. In politics, the term may imply a larger set of social issues and time constraints with disputed consequences in areas such as economy, social welfare, education, health care, slavery, prostitution, crime, legal protections, voting rights, public services, and human rights. Illegal emigration would be leaving a country in a manner that violates the laws of the country being exited.


الحضارة الرومانيةAncient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula in the 9th century BC to a large empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea.[1] In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracy, to an increasingly autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation.




الحضارة اليونانيةThe term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting from ca. 750 BC[1] (the archaic period) to 146 BC (the Roman conquest). It is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western Civilization. Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe

The civilization of the ancient Greeks has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and arts, giving rise to the Renaissance in Western Europe and again resurgent during various neo-Classical revivals in 18th and 19th century Europe and the Americas.


الحضارة الفرعونيةAncient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern nation of Egypt. The civilization began around 3150 BC[1] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia.[2] Its history occurred in a series of stable periods, known as kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. After the end of the last kingdom, known as the New Kingdom, the civilization of ancient Egypt entered a period of slow, steady decline, during which Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers. The rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province.[3]
حضارة بابلBabylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC.





This article is about the concept of education. For the stained-glass window at Yale University inspired by this concept, see Education (Chittenden Memorial Window).
التعــــــليمEducation encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and skills. It is training by formal instruction in a skill, trade or profession, mental, moral & aesthetic development, the provision of information, and persuasion to feel, believe, or act in a desired way.[1]

Formal education is systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula. Teachers draw on many different disciplines for their lessons, including psychology, philosophy, information technology, linguistics, neuroscience, and sociology.




الثقافةCulture is manifested in music, literature, lifestyle, painting and sculpture, theater and film and similar things.[3] Although some people identify culture in terms of consumption and consumer goods (as in high culture, low culture, folk culture, or popular culture),[4] anthropologists understand "culture" to refer not only to consumption goods, but to the general processes which produce such goods and give them meaning, and to the social relationships and practices in which such objects and processes become embedded. For them, culture thus includes art, science, as well as moral systems.
الزراعةAgriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.Agriculture encompasses many subjects, including aquaculture, agronomy, animal husbandry, and horticulture. Each of these subjects can be further partitioned: for example, agronomy includes both sustainable agriculture and intensive farming, and animal husbandry includes ranching, herding, and intensive pig farming. Agricultural products include food (vegetables, fruits, and cereals), fibers (cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax), fuels (methane from biomass, ethanol, biodiesel), cut flowers, ornamental and nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade, both legal and illegal drugs (biopharmaceuticals, tobacco, marijuana, opium, cocaine), and other useful materials such as resins. Recently, crops have been designed to produce plastic[1] .



التلفزيونTelevision is a widely used telecommunication medium for broadcasting and receiving live, moving greyscale or color images with sound. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set, programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning "far sight": Greek teleλε), far, and Latin vision, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person).

Commercially available since the late 1930s, the television set has become a common household communications device in homes and institutions, particularly as a source of entertainment and news. Since the 1970s, video recordings on tape and later, digital playback systems such as DVDs, have enabled the television to be used to view recorded movies and other programs.


الانترناتAn intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with its employees. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service, the internal website. The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are used to build an intranet. HTTP and other Internet protocols are commonly used as well, such as FTP. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new interfaces with corporate "legacy" data and information systems.
الهاتف النقالThe mobile phone (also called a mobile, wireless, cellular phone, cell phone, or hand phone(hp))[1] is a short-range, portable electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. In November 2007, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world reached 3.3 billion, or half of the human population, which also makes the mobile phone the most widely spread technology and the most common gadget in the world. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, java gaming, bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones). Since the mid-2000s, an increasing number of cellphones can connect to the Internet, a portion of which can be navigated using cellphones.


المراهقــينAdolescence (lat adolescere = (to) grow) is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. This transition involves biological (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological changes, though the biological or physiological ones are the easiest to measure objectively. Historically, puberty has been heavily associated with teenagers and the onset of adolescent development.www.youthspecialties.com-0#cite_note-www.youthspecialties.com-0" class="postlink" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[1][2]www.bmj.com-2#cite_note-www.bmj.com-2" class="postlink" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[3][4] In recent years, however, the start of puberty has seen an increase in preadolescence and extension beyond the teenage years, making adolescence less simple to discern.www.youthspecialties.com-0#cite_note-www.youthspecialties.com-0" class="postlink" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[1][5][

The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country as well as by function, as even within a single country there will be different ages at which an individual is considered mature enough to be entrusted with particular tasks, such as driving a vehicle, having sexual relations, serving in the armed forces, voting, or marrying.


الاحتباس الحراريThe greenhouse effect is the process in which the emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere warms a planet's surface. The name comes from an incorrect analogy with the warming of air inside a greenhouse compared to the air outside the greenhouse. The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.[1]

The Earth's average surface temperature of 14 °C (57 °F) would otherwise be about -19 °C (-2.2 °F) in the absence of the greenhouse effect.[2] Global warming, a recent warming of the Earth's lower atmosphere, is believed to be the result of an enhanced greenhouse effect due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the Earth, Mars and Venus have greenhouse effects.


النمو السكانيPopulation growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. The term population growth can technically refer to any species, but almost always refers to humans, and it is often used informally for the more specific demographic term population growth rate (see below), and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the population of the world.

Simple models of population growth include the Malthusian Growth Model and the logistic model.

التصحرDesertification (or desertization) is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations. Current desertification is taking place much faster worldwide than historically and usually arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals.

A major impact of desertification is biodiversity loss and loss of productive capacity, for example, by transition from land dominated by perennial grasses to one dominated by perennial shrubs



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: انجليزية...............   01/08/12, 01:18 pm

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